Contre-rapport de l’ADFM sur la discrimination de la femme au Maroc

On trouve pas mal de rapports intéressants sur le site du Réseau euro-méditerranéen des droits de l’homme (REMDH), y compris sur le Maroc, représenté par l’AMDH, l’OMDH, l’Association démocratique des femmes du Maroc (ADFM) et l’Espace associatif.

On y trouve notamment un rapport – « Implementation of the CEDAW Convention: Non-Governmental Organisations’ Shadow Report to the Third and the Fourth Periodic Report of the Moroccan Government« , bizarrement disponible qu’en anglais – d’il y a près de huit mois émanant de l’AFDM et consacré à l’état des discriminations des femmes au Maroc – ce rapport vient en contrepoint du rapport officiel présenté par le gouvernement marocain devant le Comité de l’ONU sur l’élimination de toute discrimination à l’égard des femmes.

Si l’ADFM reconnaît certaines avancées ces dernières années (à titre de comparaison, voir le rapport de 2004 de plusieurs ONG féministes marocaines), elle note cependant des points noirs:

However, despite this undeniable progress, Morocco’s legal framework does not fully conform to the provisions of CEDAW, especially article 2, and the recommendations made by the CEDAW Committee following consideration of the country’s 2nd periodic report (2003).2 In fact, the recommendations addressed several critical issues that are still of relevance today. These include:
– Withdrawing reservations and ratifying the Optional Protocol to CEDAW;
– Incorporating the principle of gender equality in the Constitution;
– Including the definition of discrimination against women as set out in article 1 of the Convention in the national legislation;
– Determining the status of international conventions within the national legal framework;
– Incorporating the provisions of the Convention in the national legislation;
– Promoting the political and public representation of women; and
– Changing stereotyped attitudes and discriminatory cultural practices related to the roles of women and men in the family and society

S’agissant des réserves marocaines émises lors de la ratification de la Convention sur l’élimination de toutes les formes de discrimination à l’égard des femmes (CEDAW), les voici:


1. With regard to article 2:

The Government of the Kingdom of Morocco express its readiness to apply the provisions of this article provided that:

– They are without prejudice to the constitutional requirement that regulate the rules of succession to the throne of the Kingdom of Morocco ;

– They do not conflict with the provisions of the Islamic Shariah. It should be noted that certain of the provisions contained in the Moroccan Code of Personal Status according women rights that differ from the rights conferred on men may not be infringed upon or abrogated because they derive primarily from the Islamic Shariah, which strives, among its other objectives, to strike a balance between the spouses in order to preserve the coherence of family life.

2. With regard to article 15, paragraph 4:

The Government of the Kingdom of Morocco declares that it can only be bound by the provisions of this paragraph, in particular those relating to the right of women to choose their residence and domicile, to the extent that they are not incompatible with articles 34 and 36 of the Moroccan Code of Personal Status.


1. With regard to article 9, paragraph 2:

The Government of the Kingdom of Morocco makes a reservation with regard to this article in view of the fact that the Law of Moroccan Nationality permits a child to bear the nationality of its mother only in the cases where it is born to an unknown father, regardless of place of birth, or to a stateless father, when born in Morocco, and it does so in order to guarantee to each child its right to a nationality. Further, a child born in Morocco of a Moroccan mother and a foreign father may acquire the nationality of its mother by declaring, within two years of reaching the age of majority, its desire to acquire that nationality, provided that, on making such declaration, its customary and regular residence is in Morocco .

2. With regard to article 16:

The Government of the Kingdom of Morocco makes a reservation with regard to the provisions of this article, particularly those relating to the equality of men and women, in respect of rights and responsibilities on entry into and at dissolution of marriage. Equality of this kind is considered incompatible with the Islamic Shariah, which guarantees to each of the spouses rights and responsibilities within a framework of equilibrium and complementary in order to preserve the sacred bond of matrimony.

The provisions of the Islamic Shariah oblige the husband to provide a nuptial gift upon marriage and to support his family, while the wife is not required by law to support the family.

Further, at dissolution of marriage, the husband is obliged to pay maintenance. In contrast, the wife enjoys complete freedom of disposition of her property during the marriage and upon its dissolution without supervision by the husband, the husband having no jurisdiction over his wife’s property.

For these reasons, the Islamic Shariah confers the right of divorce on a woman only by decision of a Shariah judge.

3. With regard to article 29:

The Government of the Kingdom of Morocco does not consider itself bound by the first paragraph of this article, which provides that `Any dispute between two or more States Parties concerning the interpretation or application of the present Convention which is not settled by negotiation shall, at the request of one of them, be submitted to arbitration.

The Government of the Kingdom of Morocco is of the view that any dispute of this kind can only be referred to arbitration by agreement of all the parties to the dispute.

Ces réserves et déclarations, dont certaines ont perdu leur objet – tout particulièrement celle relative à l’article 9.2 de la CEDAW (« Les Etats parties accordent à la femme des droits égaux à ceux de l’homme en ce qui concerne la nationalité de leurs enfants« ), qui n’est pas conforme à l’état actuel du droit marocain depuis la réforme du code de la nationalité, qui permet désormais à la mère marocaine mariée à un étranger de transmettre la nationalité marocaine à ses enfants – voilà belle lurette que le gouvernement marocain a officiellement déclaré vouloir revenir dessus. Guess what? Il n’en a rien fait, tout en répétant encore dernièrement que c’était comme si c’était fait (« Concernant le Maroc,toutes les recommandations faites par la coalition ont été soulevées par le groupe de travail d’UPR. Toutefois, seule la recommandation au sujet de la communication du retrait des réserves au Secrétaire Général de l’ONU apparaît dans les recommandations acceptées par le Maroc (article 9, paragraphe 2, article 16, paragraphe 1 (h), et article 16, paragraphe 2, ainsi que la déclaration sur article 15, paragraphe 4)« ).

Des associations marocaines ont lancé une campagne de sensibilisation à ce sujet, avec notamment un blog – « Egalité sans réserve » – qui y est exclusivement consacré ainsi qu’une pétition. Le collectif « Réforme des lois de la famille dans le monde arabe » s’est joint à ce combat.

Voilà donc une réforme facile – le gros du travail est fait, sur le papier du moins, depuis les réformes législatives du Code de la famille et du Code de la nationalité – pas chère et qui ne nécessiterait qu’un dahir publié au Bulletin officiel. Et pourtant…

Sans doute la faute au réseau Bellliraj, au PNUD, à la presse algérienne, à Jean-Pierre Tuquoi, Bob Ménard, Boubker Jamaï et Rachid Nini.

The haj is good for your personal harmony…

Encore de la propagande islamo-gauchiste:

We estimate the impact on pilgrims of performing the Hajj pilgrimage to Mecca. Our method compares successful and unsuccessful applicants in a lottery used by Pakistan to allocate Hajj visas. Pilgrim accounts stress that the Hajj leads to a feeling of unity with fellow Muslims, but outsiders have sometimes feared that this could be accompanied by antipathy toward non-Muslims. We find that participation in the Hajj increases observance of global Islamic practices such as prayer and fasting while decreasing participation in localized practices and beliefs such as the use of amulets and dowry. It increases belief in equality and harmony among ethnic groups and Islamic sects and leads to more favorable attitudes toward women, including greater acceptance of female education and employment. Increased unity within the Islamic world is not accompanied by antipathy toward non-Muslims. Instead, Hajjis show increased belief in peace, and in equality and harmony among adherents of different religions. The evidence suggests that these changes are more a result of exposure to and interaction with Hajjis from around the world, rather than religious instruction or a changed social role of pilgrims upon return.

Source: « Estimating the Impact of the Hajj: Religion and Tolerance in Islam’s Global Gathering« , working paper de David Clingingsmith, Asim Ijaz Khwaja et Michael Kremer, publié par le Weatherhead Center for International Affairs de Harvard.

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